The stability of colloidal material and dispersions is one of the most important factors in quality assurance or development and formulation of new products. Long measuring time, imprecise and non-significant measurements due to only selective and low-resolution measurements of the zeta potential often lead to a faulty analysis of the dispersion stability and thus cause high costs for a company. In addition, agglomeration of particles can reduce production efficiency and product quality, so a measurement method that can accurately determine the critical coagulation point is needed.
Nowadays, particle surface charge and interface potentials, such as the zeta potential and the streaming potential, are widely used to characterize the stability of suspensions, emulsions and nanoparticles. These parameters have established as a typical measure representing the electrostatic repulsion between particles.
The Stabino® II from Colloid Metrix provides very fast, precise and reproducible particle charge measurements due to its high resolution and data point density, respectively. Thus, the Stabino® II is able to measure the surface charge of particles in the range of 0.3 nm to 300 μm, with a concentration range of up to 40% by volume. Due to the optimized measuring technology, the Stabino® II can determine 5 parameters simultaneously and within a few seconds:
- zeta potential
- streaming potential
- pH value
In addition, the Stabino® II has a built-in titration function where all the parameters are determined simultaneously at every titration dosage step. The determination of the isoelectric point is one of the possibilities of titration and is determined within a few minutes.
Your titration applications:
pH titration: Determination of the isoelectric point and stable pH ranges.
Polyelectrolyte titration: Statements about the stability and charge density.
Titration with dispersant: For dispersant optimization.
Titration with salts: Zeta potential as a function of the conductivity.
Formulation: Titration with additives to obtain the optimum in the formulation of your products.
5 measurement parameters simultaneously:
To determine the quality of your samples, you need more than just one measurement parameter?
With each measuring point, the Stabino® II provides information about the conductivity, zeta potential, streaming potential, temperature and pH of your sample.
Measurig during the titration:
With the Stabino® II software, your entire titration or measurement can be tracked in real time, because for each titrated droplet you will receive a measuring point in the graph including all 5 measurement parameters.
To focus only on the results, the software has been made as easy-to-use as possible. Just pour in 1 - 10 mL sample into the Teflon beaker of the Stabino® II, open the software and start the measurement.
Fast measuring time:
Most known analytical systems are based on electrophoresis zeta potential, with which titrations are often too inaccurate and too time consuming. For a high sample throughput and thus valuable time savings the Stabino® II was optimized so that the parameters required for e.g. quality assurance or formulation can be determined within seconds. For a polyelectrolyte or pH titration the Stabino® II takes approx. 5 - 15 minutes and generates several hundreds of data points.
Extension: In-situ size distribution:
You are not only interested in the surface charge of your sample but also want to determine the particle size distribution?
The NANO-flex® II 180° DLS can be perfectly combined with the Stabino®, so that the NANO-flex® II sensor can easily be integrated into the Stabino® Teflon beaker. The size distribution can either be determined stand-alone or can be tracked e.g. during a charge titration. The coagulation becomes "visible" in situ by the particle size and it is possible to identify the critical agglomeration point of a sample. This is especially helpful to assess colloidal systems even more.
Adapted titration speed:
The titration speed of the Stabino® II can be adjusted to the reaction rate of your sample. For this the software offers the possibility to define standard operating procedures (SOPs) as desired.
"Mix and Measure" - a huge advantage:
Due to the continuous and rapid mixing of the sample and the titration solution, a charge titration is completed in minutes and additionally prevents sedimentation.
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1) Which industries use streaming potential?
All industries, most of them in inks, food/beverages, new nanomaterials, ceramics, chemistry.
2) What is the difference between zeta potential and streaming potential?
The zeta potential is appearing at the shear plane. It cannot be measured directly. All setups listed below under a) to c) result in a signal but not as a direct zeta potential.
The most frequent methods are:
a) applying an electric field → electrophoretic mobility
b) applying a streaming fluid → streaming current /streaming potential
c) applying an ultrasonic wave → vibration current
All 3 methods are shearing away the free counter ions from the shear plane. This creates a potential decrease which is correlated to the number of these sheared free ions. The potential decrease therefore correlates to the surface charge and the zeta potential of any interface, including the interface of particles. The calculation of a theoretically absolute zeta potential from making one of these 3 setups is complicated as it is based on assumptions. Electrophoresis is most frequently used, applying the Smoluchowski formula to calculate the zeta potential from the measured electrophoretic mobility. Although it is valid for a limited range of size and concentration, it is widely accepted. Therefore, other methods calibrate to the electrophoresis Smoluchowski calculation.
Absolute Charge Determination: More important than zeta potential is the total charge measurement by a titration to the zero point of charge (ZPC). The reason: a zero surface charge gives a zero signal, whatever the applied method is. A titration to the ZPC with a polyelectrolyte solution of known charge delivers an absolute result without the need of making assumptions.
The result of adding a polyelectrolyte (PE) solution of known elementary charge concentration, 0.01N cationic for example, until the measurement signal is zero is the so called “consumption”. It is measured in Coulomb [C]. The measured charge referred to the mass [C g -1 ], volume [C ml -1 ] or total surface [C m -2 ] is the so called charge density. These are absolute results.
NO ASSUMPTION needed - THIS is the strength of Stabino®.
Why? - The measurement is electro mechanical, with an extremely fast response; in this case a titration can be finished in a few minutes. In addition, the method is applicable to the widest field of samples (see table it in question 8). In most cases without the need to dilute the sample.
3) How does the streaming potential match to the zeta potential of the electrophoresis?
The streaming potential is calibrated to the electrophoresis potential of a known zeta potential standard. Again, the measured signal, whether it is calibrated to zeta potential or not, is a relative monitor signal for the presence of charges in the sample. The total charge is the most trustworthy answer about the amount of charges located on the surface of the sample and therefore the best prediction of the stability.
4) What kind of sample and solvent can be measured?
All samples from 0.3 nm to 300 µm. Solvents: water and alcohols and mixtures of so called polar liquids. NO UNPOLAR ORGANIC SOLVENT!!! It does not make sense, by the way.
5) Is the temperature controlled?
A sensor is included as standard. A temperature controller is an accessory (0°C up to 90°C).
6) What is the function of the piston gap?
The streaming velocity of the liquid depends on the gap between the cell wall and the piston. Narrow gap = high fluid speed, wide gap = low speed. The gap (streaming velocity) plays on the sensitivity of the signal. It is comparable to the linear influence of the electric field to the velocity of the particles in an electrophoretic setup.
7) What is the difference between white cell and black cell?
White - for clear and white samples.
Black - for colored and black samples.