The stability of colloidal material and dispersions is one of the most important factors in quality assurance or development and formulation of new products. Long measuring time, imprecise and non-significant measurements due to only selective and low-resolution measurements of the zeta potential often lead to a faulty analysis of the dispersion stability and thus cause high costs for a company. In addition, agglomeration of particles can reduce production efficiency and product quality, so a measurement method that can accurately determine the critical coagulation point is needed.

Nowadays, particle surface charge and interface potentials, such as the zeta potential and the streaming potential, are widely used to characterize the stability of suspensions, emulsions and nanoparticles. These parameters have established as a typical measure representing the electrostatic repulsion between particles.

The Stabino® II from Colloid Metrix provides very fast, precise and reproducible particle charge measurements due to its high resolution and data point density, respectively. Thus, the Stabino® II is able to measure the surface charge of particles in the range of 0.3 nm to 300 μm, with a concentration range of up to 40% by volume. Due to the optimized measuring technology, the Stabino® II can determine 5 parameters simultaneously and within a few seconds:

  • zeta potential
  • streaming potential
  • conductivity
  • pH value
  • temperature

In addition, the Stabino® II has a built-in titration function where all the parameters are determined simultaneously at every titration dosage step. The determination of the isoelectric point is one of the possibilities of titration and is determined within a few minutes.

Your titration applications:

pH titration: Determination of the isoelectric point and stable pH ranges.

Polyelectrolyte titration: Statements about the stability and charge density.

Titration with dispersant: For dispersant optimization.

Titration with salts: Zeta potential as a function of the conductivity.

Formulation: Titration with additives to obtain the optimum in the formulation of your products.


Stabino ® Brochure

5 measurement parameters simultaneously:
To determine the quality of your samples, you need more than just one measurement parameter?
With each measuring point, the Stabino® II provides information about the conductivity, zeta potential, streaming potential, temperature and pH of your sample.

Measurig during the titration:
With the Stabino® II software, your entire titration or measurement can be tracked in real time, because for each titrated droplet you will receive a measuring point in the graph including all 5 measurement parameters.

Easy operation:
To focus only on the results, the software has been made as easy-to-use as possible. Just pour in 1 - 10 mL sample into the Teflon beaker of the Stabino® II, open the software and start the measurement.

Fast measuring time:
Most known analytical systems are based on electrophoresis zeta potential, with which titrations are often too inaccurate and too time consuming. For a high sample throughput and thus valuable time savings the Stabino® II was optimized so that the parameters required for e.g. quality assurance or formulation can be determined within seconds. For a polyelectrolyte or pH titration the Stabino® II takes approx. 5 - 15 minutes and generates several hundreds of data points.

Extension: In-situ size distribution:
You are not only interested in the surface charge of your sample but also want to determine the particle size distribution?
The NANO-flex® II 180° DLS can be perfectly combined with the Stabino®, so that the NANO-flex® II sensor can easily be integrated into the Stabino® Teflon beaker. The size distribution can either be determined stand-alone or can be tracked e.g. during a charge titration. The coagulation becomes "visible" in situ by the particle size and it is possible to identify the critical agglomeration point of a sample. This is especially helpful to assess colloidal systems even more.

Adapted titration speed:
The titration speed of the Stabino® II can be adjusted to the reaction rate of your sample. For this the software offers the possibility to define standard operating procedures (SOPs) as desired.

"Mix and Measure" - a huge advantage:
Due to the continuous and rapid mixing of the sample and the titration solution, a charge titration is completed in minutes and additionally prevents sedimentation.

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Structure of micelles and liposomes

Inline particle size measurement of micelles and liposomes

How NANO-flex II with IPAS extension can be used for inline measurement of micelles and liposomes.
Workplace at IAB Weimar

Zeta potential and charge titration to assess the stability of suspensions

Investigation report of IAB - Institut für Angewandte Bauforschung Weimar gGmbH (IAB)

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JAHANGIRI, Hadi; ÖVEÇOĞLU, M. Lütfi. Determination of crystallite size, strain and solubility in mechanically alloyed W-xTi (x= 0.5, 1.0, 4.0 and 10.0 wt%) powder alloys. Materials Letters, 2016, 178. Jg., S. 193-196.Abstract


KUCHENBECKER, Petra. The Analytical centrifuge–an additional tool to optimize ceramic slurries for spray drying. 2016.Abstract


PINTO, Moisés L., et al. Storage and delivery of nitric oxide by microporous titanosilicate ETS-10 and Al and Ga substituted analogues. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2016, 229. Jg., S. 83-89.Abstract


MUSHI, Ngesa Ezekiel, et al. Nanostructurally Controlled Hydrogel Based on Small‐Diameter Native Chitin Nanofibers: Preparation, Structure, and Properties. ChemSusChem, 2016, 9. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 989-995.Abstract


ZHANG, Yicheng. Froth flotation of xenotime. 2016. Doktorarbeit. Colorado School of Mines.Fulltext


MARKSTEDT, Kajsa, et al. 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose–Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications. Biomacromolecules, 2015, 16. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 1489-1496. Abstract


BUI, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; AHMED, Snober; ABBAS, Abdennour. Single-Digit Pathogen and Attomolar Detection with the Naked Eye Using Liposome-Amplified Plasmonic Immunoassay. Nano letters, 2015, 15. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 6239-6246.PubMed


ANDERSON, Caelen D. Improved understanding of rare earth surface chemistry and its application to froth flotation. 2015. Doktorarbeit. Colorado School of Mines.Fulltext


FERNANDES, Joana P., et al. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization. Frontiers in chemistry, 2015, 3. Jg.PubMed


FERNANDES, Joana P., et al. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization. Frontiers in chemistry, 2015, 3. Jg.PubMed


UHLIG, Martin, et al. Two-Dimensional Aggregation and Semi-Dilute Ordering in Cellulose Nanocrystals. Langmuir, 2015.Abstract


USOV, Ivan, et al. Understanding nanocellulose chirality and structure-properties relationship at the single fibril level. Nature communications, 2015, 6. Jg.Abstract


SAGIRLI, FZ Engin, et al. In-situ preparation and characterization of pyrrole and tert-butyl 1-pyrrole-carboxylate on barium titanate/poly (acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate) nanoparticles. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 2015.Abstract


ANDERSON, Caelen D. Fundamentals of rare earth flotation surface chemistry: Electrokinetic phenomena. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, 2014, 31. Jg., Nr. 3.Abstract


ESLAHIAN, Kyriakos A., et al. Specific salt effects on thermophoresis of charged colloids. Soft matter, 2014, 10. Jg., Nr. 12, S. 1931-1936.Abstract


WITTMAR, Alexandra, et al. Influence of the cation alkyl chain length of imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids on the dispersibility of TiO2 nanopowders. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2013, 15. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 1-12.Abstract


StabiSizer® / Stabino®

Shahram Nekouei, Farzin Nekouei, Hanieh Kargarzadeh. Synthesis of ZnO photocatalyst modified with activated carbon for a perfect degradation of ciprofloxacin and its secondary pollutants. Chem. 2018;32:e4198.


Maren Möller, Nikolay Tarabanko, Claas Wessel, Rüdiger Ellinghaus, Herbert Over* and Bernd M. Smarsly. Electrospinning of CeO2 nanoparticle dispersions into mesoporous fibers: on the interplay of stability and activity in the HCl oxidation reaction. DOI: 10.1039/C7RA03020G (Paper) RSC Adv., 2018, 8, 132-144 Fulltext


Peter Kosiol, Marie Theres Müller, Benjamin Schneider, Björn Hansmann, Volkmar Thom, Mathias Ulbricht. Determination of pore size gradients of virus filtration membranes using gold nanoparticles and their relation to fouling with protein containing feed streams. Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 548, 15 February 2018, Pages 598-608 Abstract


Mohammad Reza Karimi Pur, Morteza Hosseini, Farnoush Faridbod, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Saman Hosseinkhani Early detection of cell apoptosis by a cytochrome C label-Free electrochemiluminescence aptasensor, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 257, March 2018, Pages 87-95 Abstract


Somayeh Khezri, Morteza Bahram and Naser Samadi A dual-mode nanosensor based on the inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence of CdS quantum dots for sensitive detection of arginine, Analytical Methods, 2017, Advance Article Abstract


H Bensalah, MF Bekheet, SA Younssi, M Ouammou et al. Removal of cationic and anionic textile dyes with Moroccan natural phosphate, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages 2189-2199 Abstract


M Nouri, H Ezzatpanah The Quality of The UHT Skim Milk as Affected by Addition of Rennet Skim Milk, Nutrition and Food Sciences Research, 2017 Fulltext


C Bojer, J Schöbel, T Martin, T Lunkenbein et al. Mesostructured ZnO/Au nanoparticle composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity, Polymer, Volume 128, 16 October 2017, Pages 65-70 Abstract


J Meyer, M Ulbricht Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers as functional additive for poly(vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes with tailored separation performance, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 545, 1 January 2018, Pages 301-311 Abstract


ASM Wittmar, Q Fu, M Ulbricht Photocatalytic and magnetic porous cellulose-based nanocomposite films prepared by a green method, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2017, 5 (11), pp 9858–9868, DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01830, Publication Date (Web): September 10, 2017 Abstract


Isabella Tavernaro, Christian Cavelius, Henrike Peuschel and Annette Kraegeloh Bright fluorescent silica-nanoparticle probes for high-resolution STED and confocal microscopy. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2017, 8, 1283–1296. doi:10.3762/bjnano.8.130, Received 19 Dec 2016, Accepted 16 May 2017, Published 21 Jun 2017Fulltext


Taher Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Faride Rafiei, Maedeh Akhoundian Synthesis of nano-sized timolol-imprinted polymer via ultrasonication assisted suspension polymerization in silicon oil and its use for the fabrication of timolol voltammetric sensor. Msc(2017), doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.03.168Fulltext


NEALE, Peta A., et al. Behaviour of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of wastewater-derived organic matter and implications for algal toxicity. Environmental Science: Nano, 2015.Abstract


GAJDA, Aleksandra M.; ULBRICHT, Mathias. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle heaters in smart porous membrane valves. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2014, 2. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 1317-1326.Abstract


GOGOI, Madhulekha; DEB, Pritam. Magneto-fluorescent hybrid of dye and SPION with ordered and radially distributed porous structures. Applied Surface Science, 2014, 298. Jg., S. 130-136.Abstract


BORDBAR, A. K., et al. Characterization of modified magnetite nanoparticles for albumin immobilization. Biotechnology research international, 2014, 2014. Jg.PubMed


GRADE, Sebastian, et al. Alloying colloidal silver nanoparticles with gold disproportionally controls antibacterial and toxic effects. Gold Bulletin, 2014, 47. Jg., Nr. 1-2, S. 83-93.Fulltext


ZIADEH, Mazen, et al. Towards completely miscible PMMA nanocomposites reinforced by shear-stiff, nano-mica. Journal of colloid and interface science, 2014, 425. Jg., S. 143-151Abstract


VAKILI TAHAMI, S. H.; RANJBAR, Z.; BASTANI, S. Aggregation and Charging Behavior of Polydisperse and Monodisperse Colloidal Epoxy-Amine Adducts. Soft Materials, 2013, 11. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 334-345.Abstract


BIVER, M.; SHOTYK, W. Stibiconite (Sb3 O6OH), senarmontite (Sb2O3) and valentinite (Sb2O3): dissolution rates at pH 2-11 and isoelectric points. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2013.Abstract


WITTMAR, Alexandra, et al. Influence of the cation alkyl chain length of imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids on the dispersibility of TiO2 nanopowders. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2013, 15. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 1-12.Abstract


FROST, Sven; ULBRICHT, Mathias. Thermoresponsive ultrafiltration membranes for the switchable permeation and fractionation of nanoparticles. Journal of Membrane Science, 2013.Abstract


BAUMGARTEN, W.; DÖRNER, J.; HORN, R. Microstructural development in volcanic ash soils from South Chile. Soil and Tillage Research, 2013, 129. Jg., S. 48-60.Abstract


KAZEMZADEH, H.; ATAIE, A.; RASHCHI, F. In Situ Synthesis of Silica-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles by Reverse Coprecipitation Method. Journal of superconductivity and novel magnetism, 2012, 25. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 2803-2808.Abstract


NENNEMANN, Arno, et al. Production of films having flexible barrier coatings containing phyllosilicates. WIPO Patent Application PCT/EP2012/061520, 2012.Fulltext


MARKGRAF, W.; MORENO, F.; HORN, Rainer. Quantification of microstructural changes in Salorthidic Fluvaquents using rheological and particle charge techniques. Vadose Zone Journal, 2012, 11. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 0-0. Abstract


PAZOKIFARD, Sh, et al. Silane grafting of TiO2 nanoparticles: dispersibility and photoactivity in aqueous solutions. Surface and Interface Analysis, 2012, 44. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 41-47.Abstract


NOURI, Marjan, et al. Effect of Partially Hydrolyzed Kappa-Casein on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Heated Milk. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 2012, 33. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 1204-1209.Abstract


KHOSHNEVISAN, Kamyar, et al. Immobilization of cellulase enzyme on superparamagnetic nanoparticles and determination of its activity and stability. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2011, 171. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 669-673.Abstract


LAMBERTY, Andrée, et al. Interlaboratory comparison for the measurement of particle size and zeta potential of silica nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2011, 13. Jg., Nr. 12, S. 7317-7329.Abstract


NORUZI, Masumeh, et al. Rapid green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Rosa hybrida petal extract at room temperature. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2011, 79. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 1461-1465PubMed


MARKGRAF, Wibke; MORENO, Felix; HORN, Rainer. Physikochemische und rheologische Parameter eines natürlichen und eines meliorierten Fluvaquents in SW-Spanien (Sevilla). 2011.Fulltext


KHAN, Tabrisur Rahman, et al. Electrodeposition of zinc–silica composite coatings: challenges in incorporating functionalized silica particles into a zinc matrix. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2011, 12. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 055005.Fulltext




MEZGER, Jochen, et al. Method For Producing Metal Nanoparticles In Polyols. U.S. Patent Application 13/003,785, 2009.Fulltext


Application Beer

K. Müller-Auffermann, M. Hutzler, H. Schneiderbanger and F. Jacob: “Scientific Evaluation of Different Methods for the Determination of Yeast Vitality” BrewingScience – Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft, 64, 2011 pp. 107-118 J. Abstract


Titze, M. Christian, F. Jacob, H. Parlar, V. Ilberg,: The Possibilities of Particle Analysis Demonstrated by the Measurement of the Colloidal Stability of Filtered Beer. – Journal of the Institute of Brewing 116, 2010, Nr. 4, S. 405-412.Fulltext


Titze, M. Christian, F. Jacob, H. Parlar and V. Ilberg: “The Possibilities of Particle Analysis Demonstrated by the Measurement of the Colloidal Stability of Filtered Beer” J. Inst. Brew. 116(4), 2010 S.405–412 J. Abstract


J. Titze, V. Ilberg, F. Jacob, H. Parlar: „Einsatzmöglichkeiten der Ladungstitrationsmethode zur Beurteilung der chemisch-physikalischen Bierstabilität, Teil 2.“ Brauwelt 148, Nr. 23, 2008, S. 624-527. Abstract


Titze, V. Ilberg, F. Jacob, H. Parlar: „Einsatzmöglichkeiten der Ladungstitrationsmethode zur Beurteilung der chemisch-physikalischen Bierstabilität, Teil 1.“ Brauwelt 148, Nr. 18/19, 2008, S. 506-509.


Titze, V. Ilberg, A. Friess, F. Jacob, H. Parlar: Enhanced long term stability measurement using a charge analyzing system. – In: Proceedings of the 31th EBC Congress, Venice, European Brewery Convention, 2007, S. 718-735. J. Abstract


1) Which industries use streaming potential?

All industries, most of them in inks, food/beverages, new nanomaterials, ceramics, chemistry.

2) What is the difference between zeta potential and streaming potential?

The zeta potential is appearing at the shear plane. It cannot be measured directly. All setups listed below under a) to c) result in a signal but not as a direct zeta potential.

The most frequent methods are:
a) applying an electric field → electrophoretic mobility
b) applying a streaming fluid → streaming current /streaming potential
c) applying an ultrasonic wave → vibration current

All 3 methods are shearing away the free counter ions from the shear plane. This creates a potential decrease which is correlated to the number of these sheared free ions. The potential decrease therefore correlates to the surface charge and the zeta potential of any interface, including the interface of particles. The calculation of a theoretically absolute zeta potential from making one of these 3 setups is complicated as it is based on assumptions. Electrophoresis is most frequently used, applying the Smoluchowski formula to calculate the zeta potential from the measured electrophoretic mobility. Although it is valid for a limited range of size and concentration, it is widely accepted. Therefore, other methods calibrate to the electrophoresis Smoluchowski calculation.

Absolute Charge Determination: More important than zeta potential is the total charge measurement by a titration to the zero point of charge (ZPC). The reason: a zero surface charge gives a zero signal, whatever the applied method is. A titration to the ZPC with a polyelectrolyte solution of known charge delivers an absolute result without the need of making assumptions.

The result of adding a polyelectrolyte (PE) solution of known elementary charge concentration, 0.01N cationic for example, until the measurement signal is zero is the so called “consumption”. It is measured in Coulomb [C]. The measured charge referred to the mass [C g -1 ], volume [C ml -1 ] or total surface [C m -2 ] is the so called charge density. These are absolute results.

NO ASSUMPTION needed - THIS is the strength of Stabino®.
Why? - The measurement is electro mechanical, with an extremely fast response; in this case a titration can be finished in a few minutes. In addition, the method is applicable to the widest field of samples (see table it in question 8). In most cases without the need to dilute the sample.

3) How does the streaming potential match to the zeta potential of the electrophoresis?

The streaming potential is calibrated to the electrophoresis potential of a known zeta potential standard. Again, the measured signal, whether it is calibrated to zeta potential or not, is a relative monitor signal for the presence of charges in the sample. The total charge is the most trustworthy answer about the amount of charges located on the surface of the sample and therefore the best prediction of the stability.

4) What kind of sample and solvent can be measured?

All samples from 0.3 nm to 300 µm. Solvents: water and alcohols and mixtures of so called polar liquids. NO UNPOLAR ORGANIC SOLVENT!!! It does not make sense, by the way.

5) Is the temperature controlled?

A sensor is included as standard. A temperature controller is an accessory (0°C up to 90°C).

6) What is the function of the piston gap?

The streaming velocity of the liquid depends on the gap between the cell wall and the piston. Narrow gap = high fluid speed, wide gap = low speed. The gap (streaming velocity) plays on the sensitivity of the signal. It is comparable to the linear influence of the electric field to the velocity of the particles in an electrophoretic setup.

7) What is the difference between white cell and black cell?

White - for clear and white samples.
Black - for colored and black samples.

8) What are the strengths of Stabino® related to optical methods? 

Particle Metrix, January 2017


Stabino ® Principle - Streaming/Zeta Potential Measurement and Charge Titration
Stabino ® - Particle Charge Mapping
Rapid pH-Titration
Rapid Polyelectrolyte Titration
Rapid Conductivity Titration
All Titrations simultaneously with Size